In a recent paper in Nature, a completely new antibiotic – teixobactin – is described (1). The really cool thing about this antibiotic is that it was discovered in a screen of uncultured bacteria, grown using new technology that enable controlled growth of single colonies in situ. I really like this idea, and I think the prospect of a novel antibiotic using a previously unexploited mechanism is super-promising, particularly in the light of alarming resistance development in clinically important pathogens (2,3). What really annoys me about the paper is the claim (already in the abstract) that since “we did not obtain any mutants of Staphylococcus aureus or Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to teixobactin (…) the properties of this compound suggest a path towards developing antibiotics that are likely to avoid development of resistance.” To me, this sounds pretty much like a bogus statement; in essence telling me that we apparently have not learned anything from the 70 years of antibiotics usage and resistance development. After working with antibiotic resistance a couple of years, particularly from the environmental perspective, I have a very disturbing feeling that there is already resistance mechanisms against teixobactin waiting out in the wild (4,5). Pretending that lack of mutation-associated resistance development means that there could not be resistance development did not help vancomycin (6,7), and we now see VRE (Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus) showing up as a major problem in clinics. The “avoid development of resistance” claim is downright irresponsible, and the cynic in me cannot help to think that NovoBiotic Pharmaceuticals (the affiliation of almost half of the authors) has a monetary finger in this jar. In the end, time will tell how “resistance-resilient” teixobactin is and how well we can handle the gift of a novel antibiotic.
- Ling LL, Schneider T, Peoples AJ, Spoering AL, Engels I, Conlon BP, Mueller A, Schäberle TF, Hughes DE, Epstein S, Jones M, Lazarides L, Steadman VA, Cohen DR, Felix CR, Fetterman KA, Millett WP, Nitti AG, Zullo AM, Chen C, Lewis K: A new antibiotic kills pathogens without detectable resistance. Nature (2015). doi:10.1038/nature14098
- Finley RL, Collignon P, Larsson DGJ, McEwen SA, Li X-Z, Gaze WH, Reid-Smith R, Timinouni M, Graham DW, Topp E: The scourge of antibiotic resistance: the important role of the environment. Clin Infect Dis, 57: 704–710 (2013).
- French GL: The continuing crisis in antibiotic resistance. Int J Antimicrob Agents, 36 Suppl 3:S3–7 (2010).
- Bengtsson-Palme J, Boulund F, Fick J, Kristiansson E, Larsson DGJ: Shotgun metagenomics reveals a wide array of antibiotic resistance genes and mobile elements in a polluted lake in India. Frontiers in Microbiology, 5: 648 (2014).
- Larsson DGJ: Antibiotics in the environment. Ups J Med Sci, 119: 108–112 (2014).
- Wright GD: Mechanisms of resistance to antibiotics. Curr Opin Chem Biol, 7:563–569 (2003).
- Werner G, Strommenger B, Witte W: Acquired vancomycin resistance in clinically relevant pathogens. Future Microbiol, 3: 547–562 (2008).